Lymph Node Infection [Lymphadenitis]

Excerpted from: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD,
Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School;
Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease,
Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital.

[2013.5.19]


A Doctor’s Perspective

Lymphadenitis is “an infection of the lymph nodes (also called lymph glands). It is a common complication of certain bacterial infections.

 


Names

  • Lymph node infection
  • Lymph gland infection
  • Localized lymphadenopathy

… Synonyms, Associated Conditions, and Differential Diagnosis

 

Things Observed and/or Felt

  • Red, tender skin over lymph node
  • Swollen, tender, or hard lymph nodes
  • Lymph nodes may feel rubbery if an abscess has formed or they have become inflamed.

… Some rather obvious, others maybe not, all are symptoms

 

Possible Things to Come

  • Abscess formation
  • Cellulitis (a skin infection)
  • Fistulas (seen in lymphadenitis that is due to tuberculosis)
  • Sepsis (bloodstream infection)

 

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider or go to the emergency room if you have symptoms of lymphadenitis.

 

Exams and Tests

  • The health care provider will perform a physical exam. This includes feeling your lymph nodes and looking for signs of injury or infection around any swollen lymph nodes.
  • A biopsy and culture of the affected area or node may reveal the cause of the inflammation. Blood cultures may reveal spread of infection to the bloodstream.

 

Medical Treatment(s)

  • Lymphadenitis may spread within hours. Treatment should begin promptly.
  • Surgery may be needed to drain an abscess.
  • Treatment may include:
    • Antibiotics to treat any infection
    • Analgesics (painkillers) to control pain
    • Anti-inflammatory medications to reduce inflammation
    • Cool compresses to reduce inflammation and pain

 

Possible Outcomes 

Prompt treatment with antibiotics usually leads to a complete recovery. It may take weeks, or even months, for swelling to disappear.

 

Making the Best of Things

Good general health and hygiene are helpful in the prevention of any infection.

 

 


Cause & Effect

  • The lymph system is a network of lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymph vessels, and organs that produce and move a fluid called lymph from tissues to the bloodstream.
  • The lymph glands, or nodes, are small structures that filter the lymph fluid. There are many white blood cells in the lymph nodes to help fight infection.
  • Lymphadenitis occurs when the glands become enlarged by swelling (inflammation), often in response to bacteria, viruses, or fungi. The swollen glands are usually found near the site of an infection, tumor, or inflammation.
  • Lymphadenitis may occur after skin infections or other infections caused by bacteria such as Streptococcus or Staphylococcus. Sometimes it is caused by rare infections such as tuberculosis or cat scratch disease (Bartonella).